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// Copyright (c) 2012, the Dart project authors. Please see the AUTHORS file
// for details. All rights reserved. Use of this source code is governed by a
// BSD-style license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
#include "vm/allocation.h"
#include "vm/assembler.h"
#include "vm/code_descriptors.h"
#include "vm/code_generator.h"
#include "vm/intermediate_language.h"
namespace dart {
// Forward declarations.
class Code;
class DeoptInfoBuilder;
class FlowGraph;
class FlowGraphCompiler;
class Function;
template <typename T> class GrowableArray;
class ParsedFunction;
class ParallelMoveResolver : public ValueObject {
explicit ParallelMoveResolver(FlowGraphCompiler* compiler);
// Resolve a set of parallel moves, emitting assembler instructions.
void EmitNativeCode(ParallelMoveInstr* parallel_move);
class ScratchFpuRegisterScope : public ValueObject {
ScratchFpuRegisterScope(ParallelMoveResolver* resolver,
FpuRegister blocked);
FpuRegister reg() const { return reg_; }
ParallelMoveResolver* resolver_;
FpuRegister reg_;
bool spilled_;
class ScratchRegisterScope : public ValueObject {
ScratchRegisterScope(ParallelMoveResolver* resolver, Register blocked);
Register reg() const { return reg_; }
ParallelMoveResolver* resolver_;
Register reg_;
bool spilled_;
bool IsScratchLocation(Location loc);
intptr_t AllocateScratchRegister(Location::Kind kind,
uword blocked_mask,
intptr_t first_free_register,
intptr_t last_free_register,
bool* spilled);
void SpillScratch(Register reg);
void RestoreScratch(Register reg);
void SpillFpuScratch(FpuRegister reg);
void RestoreFpuScratch(FpuRegister reg);
// friend class ScratchXmmRegisterScope;
// Build the initial list of moves.
void BuildInitialMoveList(ParallelMoveInstr* parallel_move);
// Perform the move at the moves_ index in question (possibly requiring
// other moves to satisfy dependencies).
void PerformMove(int index);
// Emit a move and remove it from the move graph.
void EmitMove(int index);
// Execute a move by emitting a swap of two operands. The move from
// source to destination is removed from the move graph.
void EmitSwap(int index);
// Verify the move list before performing moves.
void Verify();
// Helpers for non-trivial source-destination combinations that cannot
// be handled by a single instruction.
void MoveMemoryToMemory(const Address& dst, const Address& src);
void StoreObject(const Address& dst, const Object& obj);
void Exchange(Register reg, const Address& mem);
void Exchange(const Address& mem1, const Address& mem2);
void Exchange(Register reg, Register base_reg, intptr_t stack_offset);
void Exchange(Register base_reg1,
intptr_t stack_offset1,
Register base_reg2,
intptr_t stack_offset2);
FlowGraphCompiler* compiler_;
// List of moves not yet resolved.
GrowableArray<MoveOperands*> moves_;
// Used for describing a deoptimization point after call (lazy deoptimization).
// For deoptimization before instruction use class CompilerDeoptInfoWithStub.
class CompilerDeoptInfo : public ZoneAllocated {
CompilerDeoptInfo(intptr_t deopt_id,
ICData::DeoptReasonId reason,
uint32_t flags,
Environment* deopt_env)
: pc_offset_(-1),
deopt_env_(deopt_env) {
ASSERT(deopt_env != NULL);
virtual ~CompilerDeoptInfo() { }
RawTypedData* CreateDeoptInfo(FlowGraphCompiler* compiler,
DeoptInfoBuilder* builder,
const Array& deopt_table);
// No code needs to be generated.
virtual void GenerateCode(FlowGraphCompiler* compiler, intptr_t stub_ix) {}
intptr_t pc_offset() const { return pc_offset_; }
void set_pc_offset(intptr_t offset) { pc_offset_ = offset; }
intptr_t deopt_id() const { return deopt_id_; }
ICData::DeoptReasonId reason() const { return reason_; }
uint32_t flags() const { return flags_; }
const Environment* deopt_env() const { return deopt_env_; }
void EmitMaterializations(Environment* env, DeoptInfoBuilder* builder);
void AllocateIncomingParametersRecursive(Environment* env,
intptr_t* stack_height);
intptr_t pc_offset_;
const intptr_t deopt_id_;
const ICData::DeoptReasonId reason_;
const uint32_t flags_;
Environment* deopt_env_;
class CompilerDeoptInfoWithStub : public CompilerDeoptInfo {
CompilerDeoptInfoWithStub(intptr_t deopt_id,
ICData::DeoptReasonId reason,
uint32_t flags,
Environment* deopt_env)
: CompilerDeoptInfo(deopt_id, reason, flags, deopt_env), entry_label_() {
ASSERT(reason != ICData::kDeoptAtCall);
Label* entry_label() { return &entry_label_; }
// Implementation is in architecture specific file.
virtual void GenerateCode(FlowGraphCompiler* compiler, intptr_t stub_ix);
const char* Name() const {
const char* kFormat = "Deopt stub for id %d, reason: %s";
const intptr_t len = OS::SNPrint(NULL, 0, kFormat,
deopt_id(), DeoptReasonToCString(reason())) + 1;
char* chars = Thread::Current()->zone()->Alloc<char>(len);
OS::SNPrint(chars, len, kFormat,
deopt_id(), DeoptReasonToCString(reason()));
return chars;
Label entry_label_;
class SlowPathCode : public ZoneAllocated {
SlowPathCode() : entry_label_(), exit_label_() { }
virtual ~SlowPathCode() { }
Label* entry_label() { return &entry_label_; }
Label* exit_label() { return &exit_label_; }
void GenerateCode(FlowGraphCompiler* compiler) {
virtual void EmitNativeCode(FlowGraphCompiler* compiler) = 0;
Label entry_label_;
Label exit_label_;
struct CidTarget {
intptr_t cid;
Function* target;
intptr_t count;
CidTarget(intptr_t cid_arg,
Function* target_arg,
intptr_t count_arg)
: cid(cid_arg), target(target_arg), count(count_arg) {}
class FlowGraphCompiler : public ValueObject {
class BlockInfo : public ZoneAllocated {
: block_label_(),
is_marked_(false) {}
// The label to jump to when control is transferred to this block. For
// nonempty blocks it is the label of the block itself. For empty
// blocks it is the label of the first nonempty successor block.
Label* jump_label() const { return jump_label_; }
void set_jump_label(Label* label) { jump_label_ = label; }
// The label of the first nonempty block after this one in the block
// order, or NULL if there is no nonempty block following this one.
Label* next_nonempty_label() const { return next_nonempty_label_; }
void set_next_nonempty_label(Label* label) { next_nonempty_label_ = label; }
bool WasCompacted() const {
return jump_label_ != &block_label_;
// Block compaction is recursive. Block info for already-compacted
// blocks is marked so as to avoid cycles in the graph.
bool is_marked() const { return is_marked_; }
void mark() { is_marked_ = true; }
Label block_label_;
Label* jump_label_;
Label* next_nonempty_label_;
bool is_marked_;
Assembler* assembler,
FlowGraph* flow_graph,
const ParsedFunction& parsed_function,
bool is_optimizing,
const GrowableArray<const Function*>& inline_id_to_function,
const GrowableArray<intptr_t>& caller_inline_id);
static bool SupportsUnboxedDoubles();
static bool SupportsUnboxedMints();
static bool SupportsSinCos();
static bool SupportsUnboxedSimd128();
static bool SupportsHardwareDivision();
// Accessors.
Assembler* assembler() const { return assembler_; }
const ParsedFunction& parsed_function() const { return parsed_function_; }
const GrowableArray<BlockEntryInstr*>& block_order() const {
return block_order_;
const FlowGraph& flow_graph() const { return flow_graph_; }
DescriptorList* pc_descriptors_list() const {
return pc_descriptors_list_;
BlockEntryInstr* current_block() const { return current_block_; }
void set_current_block(BlockEntryInstr* value) {
current_block_ = value;
static bool CanOptimize();
bool CanOptimizeFunction() const;
bool CanOSRFunction() const;
bool is_optimizing() const { return is_optimizing_; }
void EnterIntrinsicMode();
void ExitIntrinsicMode();
bool intrinsic_mode() const { return intrinsic_mode_; }
Label* intrinsic_slow_path_label() {
return &intrinsic_slow_path_label_;
bool ForceSlowPathForStackOverflow() const;
const GrowableArray<BlockInfo*>& block_info() const { return block_info_; }
ParallelMoveResolver* parallel_move_resolver() {
return &parallel_move_resolver_;
// Constructor is lighweight, major initialization work should occur here.
// This makes it easier to measure time spent in the compiler.
void InitCompiler();
void CompileGraph();
void VisitBlocks();
// Bail out of the flow graph compiler. Does not return to the caller.
void Bailout(const char* reason);
// Returns 'true' if regular code generation should be skipped.
bool TryIntrinsify();
void GenerateRuntimeCall(intptr_t token_pos,
intptr_t deopt_id,
const RuntimeEntry& entry,
intptr_t argument_count,
LocationSummary* locs);
void GenerateCall(intptr_t token_pos,
const StubEntry& stub_entry,
RawPcDescriptors::Kind kind,
LocationSummary* locs);
void GenerateDartCall(intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
const StubEntry& stub_entry,
RawPcDescriptors::Kind kind,
LocationSummary* locs);
void GenerateAssertAssignable(intptr_t token_pos,
intptr_t deopt_id,
const AbstractType& dst_type,
const String& dst_name,
LocationSummary* locs);
void GenerateInstanceOf(intptr_t token_pos,
intptr_t deopt_id,
const AbstractType& type,
bool negate_result,
LocationSummary* locs);
void GenerateInstanceCall(intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
intptr_t argument_count,
LocationSummary* locs,
const ICData& ic_data);
void GenerateStaticCall(intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
const Function& function,
intptr_t argument_count,
const Array& argument_names,
LocationSummary* locs,
const ICData& ic_data);
void GenerateNumberTypeCheck(Register kClassIdReg,
const AbstractType& type,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_lbl);
void GenerateStringTypeCheck(Register kClassIdReg,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_lbl);
void GenerateListTypeCheck(Register kClassIdReg,
Label* is_instance_lbl);
void EmitComment(Instruction* instr);
bool NeedsEdgeCounter(TargetEntryInstr* block);
void EmitEdgeCounter(intptr_t edge_id);
void EmitOptimizedInstanceCall(const StubEntry& stub_entry,
const ICData& ic_data,
intptr_t argument_count,
intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
LocationSummary* locs);
void EmitInstanceCall(const StubEntry& stub_entry,
const ICData& ic_data,
intptr_t argument_count,
intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
LocationSummary* locs);
void EmitPolymorphicInstanceCall(const ICData& ic_data,
intptr_t argument_count,
const Array& argument_names,
intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
LocationSummary* locs);
void EmitMegamorphicInstanceCall(const ICData& ic_data,
intptr_t argument_count,
intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
LocationSummary* locs);
void EmitTestAndCall(const ICData& ic_data,
intptr_t arg_count,
const Array& arg_names,
Label* failed,
Label* match_found,
intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_index,
LocationSummary* locs);
Condition EmitEqualityRegConstCompare(Register reg,
const Object& obj,
bool needs_number_check,
intptr_t token_pos);
Condition EmitEqualityRegRegCompare(Register left,
Register right,
bool needs_number_check,
intptr_t token_pos);
void EmitTrySync(Instruction* instr, intptr_t try_index);
intptr_t StackSize() const;
// Returns assembler label associated with the given block entry.
Label* GetJumpLabel(BlockEntryInstr* block_entry) const;
bool WasCompacted(BlockEntryInstr* block_entry) const;
// Returns the label of the fall-through of the current block.
Label* NextNonEmptyLabel() const;
// Returns true if there is a next block after the current one in
// the block order and if it is the given block.
bool CanFallThroughTo(BlockEntryInstr* block_entry) const;
// Return true-, false- and fall-through label for a branch instruction.
BranchLabels CreateBranchLabels(BranchInstr* branch) const;
void AddExceptionHandler(intptr_t try_index,
intptr_t outer_try_index,
intptr_t pc_offset,
const Array& handler_types,
bool needs_stacktrace);
void SetNeedsStacktrace(intptr_t try_index);
void AddCurrentDescriptor(RawPcDescriptors::Kind kind,
intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos);
void RecordSafepoint(LocationSummary* locs);
Label* AddDeoptStub(intptr_t deopt_id,
ICData::DeoptReasonId reason,
uint32_t flags = 0);
void AddDeoptIndexAtCall(intptr_t deopt_id, intptr_t token_pos);
void AddSlowPathCode(SlowPathCode* slow_path);
void FinalizeExceptionHandlers(const Code& code);
void FinalizePcDescriptors(const Code& code);
RawArray* CreateDeoptInfo(Assembler* assembler);
void FinalizeStackmaps(const Code& code);
void FinalizeVarDescriptors(const Code& code);
void FinalizeStaticCallTargetsTable(const Code& code);
const Class& double_class() const { return double_class_; }
const Class& mint_class() const { return mint_class_; }
const Class& float32x4_class() const { return float32x4_class_; }
const Class& float64x2_class() const { return float64x2_class_; }
const Class& int32x4_class() const { return int32x4_class_; }
const Class& BoxClassFor(Representation rep);
void SaveLiveRegisters(LocationSummary* locs);
void RestoreLiveRegisters(LocationSummary* locs);
#if defined(DEBUG)
void ClobberDeadTempRegisters(LocationSummary* locs);
Environment* SlowPathEnvironmentFor(Instruction* instruction);
intptr_t CurrentTryIndex() const {
if (current_block_ == NULL) {
return CatchClauseNode::kInvalidTryIndex;
return current_block_->try_index();
bool may_reoptimize() const { return may_reoptimize_; }
// Returns 'sorted' array in decreasing count order.
static void SortICDataByCount(const ICData& ic_data,
GrowableArray<CidTarget>* sorted,
bool drop_smi);
// Use in unoptimized compilation to preserve/reuse ICData.
const ICData* GetOrAddInstanceCallICData(intptr_t deopt_id,
const String& target_name,
const Array& arguments_descriptor,
intptr_t num_args_tested);
const ICData* GetOrAddStaticCallICData(intptr_t deopt_id,
const Function& target,
const Array& arguments_descriptor,
intptr_t num_args_tested);
const ZoneGrowableArray<const ICData*>& deopt_id_to_ic_data() const {
return *deopt_id_to_ic_data_;
Thread* thread() const { return thread_; }
Isolate* isolate() const { return isolate_; }
Zone* zone() const { return zone_; }
void AddStubCallTarget(const Code& code);
const Array& inlined_code_intervals() const {
return inlined_code_intervals_;
RawArray* edge_counters_array() const {
return edge_counters_array_.raw();
RawArray* InliningIdToFunction() const;
RawArray* CallerInliningIdMap() const;
friend class CheckStackOverflowSlowPath; // For pending_deoptimization_env_.
void EmitFrameEntry();
void AddStaticCallTarget(const Function& function);
void GenerateDeferredCode();
void EmitInstructionPrologue(Instruction* instr);
void EmitInstructionEpilogue(Instruction* instr);
// Emit code to load a Value into register 'dst'.
void LoadValue(Register dst, Value* value);
void EmitOptimizedStaticCall(const Function& function,
const Array& arguments_descriptor,
intptr_t argument_count,
intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
LocationSummary* locs);
void EmitUnoptimizedStaticCall(intptr_t argument_count,
intptr_t deopt_id,
intptr_t token_pos,
LocationSummary* locs,
const ICData& ic_data);
// Type checking helper methods.
void CheckClassIds(Register class_id_reg,
const GrowableArray<intptr_t>& class_ids,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_lbl);
RawSubtypeTestCache* GenerateInlineInstanceof(intptr_t token_pos,
const AbstractType& type,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_lbl);
RawSubtypeTestCache* GenerateInstantiatedTypeWithArgumentsTest(
intptr_t token_pos,
const AbstractType& dst_type,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_lbl);
bool GenerateInstantiatedTypeNoArgumentsTest(intptr_t token_pos,
const AbstractType& dst_type,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_lbl);
RawSubtypeTestCache* GenerateUninstantiatedTypeTest(
intptr_t token_pos,
const AbstractType& dst_type,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_label);
RawSubtypeTestCache* GenerateSubtype1TestCacheLookup(
intptr_t token_pos,
const Class& type_class,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_lbl);
enum TypeTestStubKind {
RawSubtypeTestCache* GenerateCallSubtypeTestStub(TypeTestStubKind test_kind,
Register instance_reg,
Register type_arguments_reg,
Register temp_reg,
Label* is_instance_lbl,
Label* is_not_instance_lbl);
// Returns true if checking against this type is a direct class id comparison.
bool TypeCheckAsClassEquality(const AbstractType& type);
void GenerateBoolToJump(Register bool_reg, Label* is_true, Label* is_false);
void CopyParameters();
void GenerateInlinedGetter(intptr_t offset);
void GenerateInlinedSetter(intptr_t offset);
// Perform a greedy local register allocation. Consider all registers free.
void AllocateRegistersLocally(Instruction* instr);
// Map a block number in a forward iteration into the block number in the
// corresponding reverse iteration. Used to obtain an index into
// block_order for reverse iterations.
intptr_t reverse_index(intptr_t index) const {
return block_order_.length() - index - 1;
void CompactBlock(BlockEntryInstr* block);
void CompactBlocks();
bool IsListClass(const Class& cls) const {
return cls.raw() == list_class_.raw();
void EmitSourceLine(Instruction* instr);
intptr_t GetOptimizationThreshold() const;
StackmapTableBuilder* stackmap_table_builder() {
if (stackmap_table_builder_ == NULL) {
stackmap_table_builder_ = new StackmapTableBuilder();
return stackmap_table_builder_;
#if defined(DEBUG)
void FrameStateUpdateWith(Instruction* instr);
void FrameStatePush(Definition* defn);
void FrameStatePop(intptr_t count);
bool FrameStateIsSafeToCall();
void FrameStateClear();
// This struct contains either function or code, the other one being NULL.
class StaticCallsStruct : public ZoneAllocated {
const intptr_t offset;
const Function* function; // Can be NULL.
const Code* code; // Can be NULL.
StaticCallsStruct(intptr_t offset_arg,
const Function* function_arg,
const Code* code_arg)
: offset(offset_arg), function(function_arg), code(code_arg) {
ASSERT((function == NULL) || function->IsZoneHandle());
ASSERT((code == NULL) || code->IsZoneHandle());
Thread* thread_;
Isolate* isolate_;
Zone* zone_;
Assembler* assembler_;
const ParsedFunction& parsed_function_;
const FlowGraph& flow_graph_;
const GrowableArray<BlockEntryInstr*>& block_order_;
#if defined(DEBUG)
GrowableArray<Representation> frame_state_;
// Compiler specific per-block state. Indexed by postorder block number
// for convenience. This is not the block's index in the block order,
// which is reverse postorder.
BlockEntryInstr* current_block_;
ExceptionHandlerList* exception_handlers_list_;
DescriptorList* pc_descriptors_list_;
StackmapTableBuilder* stackmap_table_builder_;
GrowableArray<BlockInfo*> block_info_;
GrowableArray<CompilerDeoptInfo*> deopt_infos_;
GrowableArray<SlowPathCode*> slow_path_code_;
// Stores static call targets as well as stub targets.
// TODO(srdjan): Evaluate if we should store allocation stub targets into a
// separate table?
GrowableArray<StaticCallsStruct*> static_calls_target_table_;
const bool is_optimizing_;
// Set to true if optimized code has IC calls.
bool may_reoptimize_;
// True while emitting intrinsic code.
bool intrinsic_mode_;
Label intrinsic_slow_path_label_;
const Class& double_class_;
const Class& mint_class_;
const Class& float32x4_class_;
const Class& float64x2_class_;
const Class& int32x4_class_;
const Class& list_class_;
ParallelMoveResolver parallel_move_resolver_;
// Currently instructions generate deopt stubs internally by
// calling AddDeoptStub. To communicate deoptimization environment
// that should be used when deoptimizing we store it in this variable.
// In future AddDeoptStub should be moved out of the instruction template.
Environment* pending_deoptimization_env_;
intptr_t lazy_deopt_pc_offset_;
ZoneGrowableArray<const ICData*>* deopt_id_to_ic_data_;
Array& edge_counters_array_;
Array& inlined_code_intervals_;
const GrowableArray<const Function*>& inline_id_to_function_;
const GrowableArray<intptr_t>& caller_inline_id_;
} // namespace dart